Organization: MA, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Regarding ‘France calls on Turkey to fight human trafficking‘:
The European Commission estimates that nowadays at least 4.5 million illegal economic immigrants live in EU member states. Almost 500,000 people are arrested every year throughout the European Union. They are usually illegal economic immigrants looking for a better life in a democratic territory.
Many of them ask for political asylum, but the [number of] political asylum [requests that are granted is] low (about 1%). This happens in the EU-27, but also more specifically in Greece as well, as it is an ideal passage for immigrants entering the EU due to the country being at a crossroads of three continents.
Greece, due to its geographic location, is the front line for migration to the European Union. The country has 1,170 kilometres of land borders and 18,400 kilometres of coastline, including islands close to Turkey. Greece neighbours with many countries whose residents often immigrate. Illegal economic immigrants come to the country and stay permanently or temporarily until they manage to go to another European country.
Greece is a gateway for asylum seekers and migrants travelling overland through Turkey from the Middle East or South Asia into the EU. Africans immigrants arrive in the country in increasing numbers over the sea via Egypt. It is estimated, through arrests, that every year 250,000 illegal immigrants enter the country.
According to the 2010 Risk Analysis by Frontex, Greece accounts for 75% of all detections of illegal border crossings in the EU. In 2009, the number of detentions of illegal border crossers in Greece rose from 50% of the EU total (in 2008) to 75% of the total. In 2009, the Greek land border sections with Albania and FYROM represented 34% of total EU illegal border crossings (the largest share), followed by the Aegean Sea (21%).
The majority of illegal economic immigrants come to Greece legally and afterwards violate the duration of their visas. Some enter the country with fake papers. Many arrive in Greece with the help of smugglers belonging to organised crime. There are two main ways for illegal immigrants to come to Greece; by land (crossing the Greek-Turkish border) and by sea to the islands of the Eastern Aegean.
Crossing the Evros River at the Greek-Turkish border is an extremely perilous route and many have drowned in the river. Another hazard is the existence of a border minefield that is badly signposted. However, not all the illegal immigrants can afford a smuggler. Many cross the river on their own.
Sea passage is the second option. Many come from Turkey to Greece by boat. For those who cannot afford the extra money needed for the trip, the option is to hire a small inflatable or motorboat, or to stow away in cargo ships. The sea route is dangerous too. Many people have drowned in their effort to enter Greece. Those who manage to enter the country and then want to go to Western Europe usually use a smuggling service by plane – that is, using fake passports – by road – hiding in trucks, usually through Albania – or by boat -hiding in the ferries that go from Patras to Italy.
But being the host country for increasing numbers of migrants and asylum seekers does not excuse Greece’s abusive treatment of illegal migrants, including children and potential refugees. Migrants are often denied the opportunity to seek protection when they fall into the hands of the Greek authorities near the country’s border with Turkey. Police in the northern region of Evros, as well as in and around the Greek islands off the coast of Turkey, do not make any distinction between people seeking asylum and others.
Greece recognises less than 1% of asylum claims. Refugees are often treated as illegal immigrants liable to detention and deportation. Only in some cases does the country give them the required international protection. Even after being granted asylum, recognised refugees do not have many chances to integrate into Greek society.
The EU and Greece try to combat illegal economic immigration through strict control. But this cannot solve the issue, because it combats the consequences and not the causes. The solution can only be found in the promotion of peace and political stability; in the respect of human rights and democratic values; in the construction of economic, social and environmental growth in the immigrants’ origin countries.
This solution, however, cannot come from one single country. EU-level cooperation is what is needed. Strict border controls cannot reduce the determination of the citizens of non-EU countries to enter EU territory. If there are no legal means for them to enter the EU, the immigrants will find other, usually risky, ways to enter it in an illegal way.
MA, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens